Category Archives: Runorna (Runic Study)

Nauðr

nauthiz

Här ligger jag i smärta.
Här ligger jag i sorg.
Nöd håller mig ner i mörker.
Här står jag upp från marken.
Här står jag upp from mörkret.
Nöd uppväcker nattens eld.
Nöd upprätthåller nattens eld.

Need is found in the roughest of spots. Where luxury has died and gone away, there is only cold and hunger. This is where true fear lives, in the fear for one’s life. Cold and dark, the elements close in like wolves upon the prey.

“Need is bondmaid’s grief,
rough conditions,
a toilsome state.”
-Icelandic rune poem

It is in this dire state where one finds what it is that they truly need. Comfort and fancy, pleasure and excess; these can wait. The starving and the cold have other goals to achieve. The dead cannot enjoy the comforts of luxury, and without the needs in place, the wants are worthless.

“Need gives scant choice;
the naked freeze in frost.”
-Danish rune poem

Here the fire is ignited: the fire of the will. This is the need-fire, which guides the soul to persevere. From the brink of death a gasp ruptures the silence of winter’s frost, and the broken self rises in defiant struggle for life. Need is what brings one’s true will to live, to succeed. It is when we have nothing, that we can achieve anything.

“Need is hurtful to hearts of children,
but often serves as help and healing,
if attended to in time.”
-Anglo-Saxon rune poem

Här ligger jag i smärta.
Här ligger jag i sorg.
Nöd håller mig ner i mörker.
Här står jag upp från marken.
Här står jag upp from mörkret.
Nöd uppväcker nattens eld.
Nöd upprätthåller nattens eld.

—————

Number: 8

Phonetic Value: N

Literal Meaning: Need

Associations: Rough conditions, necessity, inspiration

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The Revival of Runic Lore and the Grammatical Structure of Runic Galdur

Since the resurgence in popularity of pagan spirituality began, there has been a dramatic increase in interest pertaining to the mystical practices of cultures whose histories and traditions have largely been buried by time and dominance by foreign religions. One of the major aspects of Germanic spirituality and magical practice that has become popular over time is that of the runes. Around the year 1250 AD, Ólafur Þórðarsson hvítskáld published the first written account of runic knowledge in what is now known as his Third Grammatical Treatise. This work primarily described the techniques of writing with runes, comparing them with the Latin alphabet, but it also mentioned the names of several of them, giving supporting evidence for those names being used at that point.

In 1599, Johannes Bureus of Sweden published the first piece of esoteric runic knowledge to be seen since the decline of the original heathen practices. His work revealed a nineteen-character futhark set, also known as the Dalecarian Runes [1]. The characters of the set are: /fyr/fryghurþorsoðas,reðrkön/kaghnhaghalnoð/nöð/noðris/iðr/irar/arssoltiðr/tyrbirkal/biörklaghrmaðr,stupämaþrar-laghrtveslungan-maðr and bälgh-þors. The Delecarian runes were not an ancient set, but rather were from a region in Sweden where runes were still being used for writing purposes. Bureus, however, had some character flaws which contributed to his views on the esoteric nature of the runes. He believed that the Jews had stolen their writing system from the original runic system, and had used it to write the Kabbalah. This meant to him that the runes, which were stolen from God’s chosen people, the Swedes, were the original “Gothic” Kabbalah. Therefore, he applied Kabbalah lore and techniques to the runes in his attempt to restore the “true” knowledge of the elder runes.[2]

Arngrímur Jónsson later published more runic information which was still known in Iceland, revealing a twenty-one-character set in alphabetical order. The primary difference between this set and Bureus’ set was the introduction of the “Stunginn” or “dotted” runes, which were used to denote phonetic differences [3]. For example, whereas Kaun generally represents a [k] sound, Stunginn Kaunrepresents a [g] sound. These and a couple of other examples are shown in the following image of Swedish runes, c. 1000 AD:

Image

http://media.tumblr.com/0ff7cada4d4beacf3a6ba3ad24322f1d/tumblr_inline_msc459JjFA1qz4rgp.gif

Later on, the three most well-known rune poem collections were published by Ole Worm [4], Runólfur Jónsson [5] and George Hickes [6]. These are respectively known as the Scandinavian, Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon rune poems. The Scandinavian and Icelandic collections each contain sixteen runes, while the Anglo-Saxon collection contains twenty-nine. It should be noted that since Norway and Iceland both belonged to Denmark at the time, Worm had access to the medieval runes still in use to some degree in Iceland, and at least a large amount of his knowledge came from those.

The discovery of the Kylver runestone in Gotland in 1903 revealed another piece of runic history; this stone contained an inscription done in runes from a set which seemed more similar to the Anglo-Saxon runes than to the Scandinavian set, but contained only twenty-four characters. It was deemed to be an older form, and four years later in 1907, Otto von Friesen of Sweden published Runorna i Sverige [7]. The first page of this short pamphlet contained the earlier discovered runes as a set called the Elder Futhark, and it was divided into three, eight-character groups called ættir. The names commonly associated with the runes of the Elder Futhark have since been reconstructed using the surviving Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian names, but direct linguistic evidence for these names has not been found thus far.

Image

The Kylver runestone. Obtained from: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/__CjMqliGoMc/TH_r_LzZ-FI/AAAAAAAAEpc/U2A79h1se7s/s1600/Kylverstenen_2+detail.jpg

Since these advancements in Runology occurred, numerous other works have been published on the subject of runes as well as on the ancient practice of galdur, especially pertaining to its application in runic magic. However, much of this information which has been brought forth is not well supported and is the product of misinformation, uneducated guesswork and new-age fusions of unrelated cultural practices from places as far as Italy and Asia [8].

The root meaning of the word galdur comes from the old Germanic word gala, which was a word for the singing of incantations. Examples of galdur are shown in several Eddic poems including Hávamál [9]and Skírnismál [10]. This verse from Oddrúnargrátr also provides an example of the practice of galdur, though in this particular translation the word is not expressly used [11]:

Þær hykk mæltu
þvígit fleira,
gekk mild fyr kné
meyju at sitja;
ríkt gól Oddrún,
rammt gól Oddrún,
bitra Galdura
at Borgnýju.

Is translated as:

No more spake they,
the mournful ones;
night her, Oddrún
did kneel to help:
stern spells she spake,
strong spells she spake,
for womb-bound woman
witchcraft mighty.

In the Hávamál verses, Oðinn describes eighteen songs that he knows following his description of how he won the knowledge of the runes, which can be used as spells to aid dull an enemy’s blade, break fetters, stop a flying spear, and other feats. In Skírnismál, Skírnir uses galdur to force Gerðr to marry Freyr.

But how are these songs performed? Some authors have attempted to describe techniques of runic galdur, but often their information is short-sighted, or simply false. Some authors such as Thorsson come up short in their presentation of galdur as a simple chanting of the runes’ respective names [12], which seems to be influenced by traditions such as Wicca or ceremonial magic more than anything truly heathen. To discover the secrets of runic galdur, we need to look to the sources, and even to the words of the god of runes himself.

In Hávamál there is contained a short section often known as the Rúnatál. This stanza contains eight lines in a repeating pattern, with one word changed in each to describe a different aspect of runic techniques:
Veistu, hvé rísta skal?

Veistu, hvé ráða skal?

Veistu, hvé fá skal?

Veistu, hvé freista skal?

Veistu, hvé biðja skal?

Veistu, hvé blóta skal?

Veistu, hvé senda skal?

Veistu, hvé sóa skal?

These lines translate to “Do you know how…is done?” with the eight skills of carving/writing, interpreting, coloring, testing, praying, sacrificing, sending and rejecting. Along with the value that these contain in advising the seeker on how to perform runic magic, these verses contain three key elements of Germanic poetry and galdur form: Repetition, rhyming and alliteration. Notice that the first two words of each line are phonetically alliterative and each pair of two successive lines (1-2, 3-4, etc.) contains an interchangeable verb with the same first letter (rista/ ráða, fá/freista, etc.). The structure of the stanza shows an obvious combination of rhyming and repetition in the fact that they begin and end the same, thereby forcing a rhyming quality through the identical end words. Of the three, however, the rhyming quality shows up less in preserved inscriptions and manuscripts, suggesting that it may not have been quite as important.

This alliterative quality of runic verses can also be used as a marker to identify the pre-Christian authenticity of earlier works. Returning to Ole Worm’s Norwegian rune poem, there is a noticeable difference between the first and second line: while the first line in each verse contains alliteration, the only verse in which the second line contains this quality is in that of ós:

Óss er fiestra ferda,
för; en skalpur er sverda.

Other verses are structured such as the poem for Kaun:

Kaun er beggia barna.
Ból giörer near folvarna.

While the rhyme is preserved between the two lines, alliteration is only present in the first, suggesting that these lines may be more authentic than the second lines. The Icelandic poem, however, contains two sets of alliteration per verse. Additionally, there are no Christian influences in the Icelandic poem, while there are several in the Danish poem, further suggesting that the authenticity of the Danish verses may have been compromised, at least in the second lines. The Anglo-Saxon poem also has mentions of ‘the Lord’ throughout some of its verses, but the alliteration is solid, suggesting that the poems have at least some degree of pre-Christian authenticity overall.  However, there is one feature to which attention should be paid here. Notice that there is a triple alliteration present in both poems, between first and second lines: “fiestra/ferða/för” and “beggia/barna/ból”. This triple alliteration, in which the beginning of the second line is paired with the alliteration between two words in the first, is present in every poem of the set, suggesting that it follows an alternative, and perhaps older, verse form. It should be noted as well that even with discrepancies or Christiant influences, the Norwegian poems are not to be passed off as “illegitimate” or “worthless”, as much of the other lore has been preserved post-conversion, and likewise these poems still contain important aspects of runic and heathen knowledge. In fact, runic prayers persisted after the conversion had already taken hold, such as this prayer to Oðinn:

“Ek sori þik, Óðinn, með …, mestr fjánda;
j¶¶áta því; seg mér nafn þess manns er stal;
fyr kristni; seg mér nú þína ódáþ.
Eitt níðik, annat(?) níðik; seg mér, Óðinn.
Nú er sorð ok … með ǫllu …
… þú nú ǫþlisk mér nafn þess er stal. A[men.]”

Which roughly translates to:

“I conjure you, Odin, with (paganism), the largest among the devils. Go with it. Tell me the name of the man who stole. For Christianity. Tell me now (your) misdeed. One is taunting me, (the other) mocks me. Tell me, Odin! Now (amounts of devils?) Evoked by all (paganism). You should obtain / Odle me the name of the person who stole. Amen.”

It is easy to conclude that this poem is written from a Christian point of view, beginning with the description of Óðinn as essentially a leader of devils, and ending with the concluding “Amen”. However, this man evokes Óðinn to help him discover a thief, even though he is now viewed as an evil entity.

There is another piece of Norse poetic form which should be addressed; that of galdralag. Stanza 101 of Snorri’s Hátattál is labeled only as Galdralag, with no other description given. This name has been translated as “meter of magic”, leading to the suggestion that the meter indicates a form of verbal magic.[13] This poetic form is believed to be a variant of ljóðaháttur, which translates to “style of songs”. [14]The meter of ljóðaháttur contains several rules over alliteration, number of lines and syllables per line. There are six lines in total; the first pair of lines, called a long line, is an alliterating pair, followed by a single full line with internal alliteration, followed by another alliterating pair, followed by a final line with internal alliteration. The alliterating pairs will contain in each line 3-7 syllables, with two stressed syllables per line. The single alliterating lines are whole unto themselves and will usually be longer, having 5-9 syllables, and there are three stressed syllables; at least two of them forming the internal alliteration. The following verse is an example in English, with the stressed syllables italicized:

Long have I stood,
on Sigtyr’s path.
The ravens were readily fed.
Now years have passed,
and youth is gone.
The sea-steed one last time sets sail.

This meter was very popular up until somewhere between the 14th and 18th centuries, and about a quarter of the poems in the Poetic Edda are written in this meter.

The characteristic variation that separates galdralag from ljóðaháttur is the addition of a seventh line, a single full line with internal alliteration as before, following one of the others. Although not essential, this line will often be a modified repetition of the previous line, adding to its quality as an “incantation meter”.[15] In the Eddic poems which feature ljóðaháttur, the mentions of runes are most often accompanied by the galdralag verse structure. This is not the case every single time, but the solid majority of the runic verses in these poems are done in the this meter. For an example of galdralag structure, see my galdur verse for Þurs further down.

There are also considerations which can be made when writing out runes. Because the runes have names which translated into individual words in their respective languages (e.g “Fé” = “Wealth”), they can be used as ideograms in writing to substitute for the full words. An example of this can be seen in the Stentoften runestone as shown below:

Image

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Stentoftenstenen.jpg/450px-Stentoftenstenen.jpg

The inscription reads:

<niuha>borumz <niuha>gestumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz … … haidiz runono, felh eka hedra
niu habrumz, niu hangistumz Haþuwulfz gaf j[ar], Hariwulfz … … haidiz runono, felh eka hedra
ginnurunoz.
Hermalausaz argiu, Weladauþs, sa þat
briutiþ.

Which translates to:

(To the) <niuha>dwellers (and) <niuha>guests Haþuwulfar gave ful year, Hariwulfar … … I, master of the runes(?) conceal here
nine bucks, nine stallions, Haþuwulfar gave fruitful year, Hariwulfar … … I, master of the runes(?) conceal here
runes of power.
Incessantly (plagued by) maleficence, (doomed to) insidious death (is) he who this
breaks.

For those who are wanting an example, the inscription on this stone was done in Proto-Norse, as can be seen by the Elder Futhark runes. Notice, though, that the four last runes in the third line are g,a,f and j, which read as “gaf j(ar)” or “gave (full) year”. Jara, the rune which meant “year” and corresponded to the Proto-Norse /j/, was used here as an ideogram for the word “year” instead of writing out the individual runes to spell the word. Similarly, if one is to write out runes to correspond to a galdr incantation, the text can be shortened using such techniques. Written runic magic was not usually lengthy, though, especially when carved. An example is the Ledberg stone, which contains a galdr verse which reads:

ÞMK – III – SSS – TTT – III – LLL

Reorganized, this reads as:

Þistil, Mistil, Kistil

This translates from Old Norse to “Thistle, Missile, Chest”, the interpretation of which can be made from there. The stone itself is shown below, with the section described on the side of the stone to the right:

Image

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Ledbergsstenen_20041231.jpg/400px-Ledbergsstenen_20041231.jpg

This example dates back much further than Galdrabók, and may present an example of an older form of runic magic. While there is no alliteration or actual repetition in this piece, there is noticeable rhyming, which may or may not be done with intent.

When studying runes and the associated galdur practices, it is important to study the rune lore itself. Through examining the grammatical structure of the rune poems and the runic verses in the Hávamál and other source lore, one can gain a solid grasp on the proper technique for performing the ancient practice of runic galdur in the modern world. For a modern example, I will present my personal galdur verses for Þurs and Reiðr. Note that as these verses are in modern Swedish, with the rune names preserved in their Old Norse forms for psychological familiarity as well as to make them more recognizable. The stressed syllables have been italicized in order to identify the vocal emphases as well as the alliteration between and within lines:

Þurs

Þurs gör makt, som forn, är.
Þurs gör makt, som farlig, är.
Jättar kasta ofta kaos.
Þurs gör makt, som forn, är.
Þurs gör makt, som farlig, är.
Nu vill jag har en väldig makt.
Nu förstörar jag mina fruktan.


Reiðr

Ge mig rätta rörelser,
Reiðr, för bekväma färder
.

Galdur verses can be as low as two or so lines as seen in the Norwegian rune poems, or they can be longer; there are various sources using different meters and amounts of lines. However, following these general grammatical and structural guidelines will be helpful in forming more authentic galdur verses and techniques. Though Old Norse is not necessarily practical for these applications in the modern world for those who don’t know it otherwise, it is very much possible to adapt these practices in terms of the Younger Futhark to modern Scandinavian languages due to their similarity to the older language, though it is also good to refrain from using loaner words from outside languages such as French, Latin and German which have been incorporated into the modern forms. When dealing with the Elder Futhark, however, it would be most effective to write and perform galdur in their original language of Urnordisk (Proto-Norse), which was a northern variant of the Proto-Germanic language used up until the linguistic transition which brought about Old Norse and the Younger Futhark [16]. Because of its age and the fact that it essentially died out before the Viking Age, it is not nearly as similar to modern Scandinavian languages as is Old Norse. Sadly, not much has been preserved of the Urnordisk language, and the vocabulary is very limited. This creates an obstacle for trying to present authentic galdurs, and until more can be revealed about the ancient tongue, one must work with what options are available. Those who seek, and those who are willing to listen, will find the truths of the runes revealed to them.

Rista stóra stafi!
Rista stinna stafi!


  1. Enoksen, Lars Magnar. The History of Runic Lore. Scandinavian Heritage Publications. 2011.
  2. http://www.kb.se/F1700/ABC.htm
  3. Enoksen, Lars Magnar.
  4. Worm, Ole. runeR Seu Danica Literatura Antiqvissima, Vulgò Gothica dicta.Hafniæ. 1636.
  5. Jónsson, Runólfur. Lingvæ Septentrionalis elementa tribus assertionibus adstructa. Hafniæ. 1651.
  6. Hickes, George. Linguarum Vett. Septentrionalium Thesauri Grammatico-Critici et Archæologici pars prima: seu Institutiones Grammaticæ Anglo-Saxonicæ, & Meso-Gothicæ. Oxoniæ. 1703.
  7. Friesen, Otto von. Runorna i Sverige. Sommarkurserna i Uppsala. Grundlinjer till föreläsningar.Uppsala. 1907.
  8. Ralph Blum based his understanding of runes and their techniques largely off of the I Ching of Chinese origin, and many modern runic divination techniques are inaccurately based off of Tarot, which developed in 15th century Italy and had no connections with any sets of runes.
  9. Hollander, Lee M (tr). The Poetic Edda. University of Texas Press. 1962
  10. Hollander, Lee M (tr).
  11. Hollander, Lee M (tr).
  12. Thorsson, Edred. Futhark: A Handbook of Rune Magic. Weiser Books. 1994.
  13. Westcoat, Eirik. What Goals had Galdralag? A Look at the Uses of the Meter. 48th International Congress on Medieval Studies. 2013. Accessed 23 Nov. 2013. Available from: https://www.academia.edu/2076311/What_Goals_had_Galdralag_A_Look_at_the_Uses_of_the_Meter.
  14. Ringler, Dick. III. Formal Features of Jónas Hallgrimsson’s Poetry and the Present Verse Translations. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Accessed 23 Nov. 2013. Available from: http://www.library.wisc.edu/etext/jonas/Prosody/Prosody-I.html.
  15. Westcoat, Eirik.
  16. This information was garnered from a private conversation with Lars Enoksen, in which I inquired as to whether or not modern Swedish was appropriate for galdurs applied to the Younger Futhark. Lars asserts that while languages such as modern Swedish can be used with the exclusion of loaner words, the Elder Futhark runes are desirably used in galdur spoken in Urnordisk, otherwise they will not be effective.

Introduction to Runes

Runes:

The runic alphabet is the original writing system of the Germanic (I’m using that term to include both Central European and Scandinavian) peoples; their use ranges from ~100 BCE to ~1600 CE, and throughout that time frame they were seen in different forms.

The Elder Futhark

The original form, and what you will most commonly see written about and used by practitioners, is the Elder Futhark, in use largely from ~100 BCE to ~800 CE and corresponded to the Proto-Norse language which was in use during that time frame. This futhark is a 24-character alphabet consisting of three ‘aetts’ known respectively as Freyr’s/Freya’s Aett, Hagal’s Aett and Tyr’s Aett. The Elder Futhark looks roughly as such:

Image

UruR, in addition to the form shown in the above image (second rune in the first row), also can be drawn using the vertical supporting line and a curved line coming down instead of the straight, angled one.  Raido has slightly incorrect representation here, where it should be drawn open rather than closed; basically, the part that comes in toward the vertical bar should not touch.

The Younger Futhark

The next commonly known futhark is the Younger Futhark, in use from ~800CE to ~1600. Contrary to what some may believe, this is actually what would have been commonly used throughout most of the Viking Age. It originated in Scandinavia as the spoken language transitioned from Proto-Norse to Old Norse, and is a reduced form of the Elder, consisting of 16 characters; it largely, but not 100% replaced the Elder Futhark. Its form is shown here:

Image

It is good to note that in this reduced form, several of the runes were used for multiple sounds. As an example, Tyr was used for both a ‘t’ and a hard ‘d’ sound, while Thurs was used for ‘th’ and the softer ‘d’ which is denoted by the Icelandic ‘ð’. A few of the runes also took on different sounds than what they had in the Elder. Óss, which was originally the ‘a’ rune, AnsuR, came to represent a nasal vowel sound early on during the Viking Age, and later was used as the ‘o’ rune in place of Othala. Ara, the new ‘a’ rune, had rune poems similar to those of Jara, suggesting that through the linguistic change it lost the ‘j’ sound and took the place for ‘a’.

The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc

The third and last commonly known representation of the runes is the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which was in use likely from ~400CE to ~900CE and was located in use primarily in Anglo-Saxon England. By about the 10th century CE they were largely confined to use in writing manuscripts, and were basically gone after the Norman conquest. The Futhorc is an extended version of the Elder Futhark, consisting of 26-33 characters, and its form is as such:

Image

Unlike with the Elder and Younger futharks, I am not well versed in this runic alphabet so I will not risk misinforming. Note, though, the open ‘R’ rune, as I described for the correct form of Raido.

Regional Variations

The previous images show common forms of these runes, but one thing to note is that there were various representations of all of these runes and most of them have about two or three ways in which they can be drawn, as well as shorthand systems which were developed. Regional linguistic differences created variations in the rune forms, most notably in the Younger Futhark. For example, the runes in Sweden during the Viking Age contained variations of the Ar rune which corresponded to the characters of ä and ö in modern Swedish, as shown in the following chart of runes from about 1000 CE:

Image

Runic inscriptions from around 900 CE also show the short-twig and staveless runes, as shown respectively in the following two charts:

Image

Image

Meanwhile, runic inscriptions from Greenland, which was primarily populated by settlers from Norway and Iceland, show somewhat different variations in the runic symbols:

Image

There is a whole lot more information that one can get into when dealing with runes and their evolution, and if you want to know more of the history, refer to my list of sources.

Now for uses:

Runes are used for various purposes, from writing to divination to magic and even curses. Divination is at the same time the most widely known and widely disputed practice, in which the runes are cast or drawn and then read according to which ones are present and in which orientation. The major evidence for and against the historical practice of runic divination comes from sources such as Tacitus’Germania, in which divination by lots is described. However, it is not stated as to whether or not the symbols on the wood chips described were actually runes as we think of them or rather other symbols. There are supporters on both sides of the argument, but either way, in its more authentic form it is a modern practice which is based upon old techniques.

Each rune has its own meaning, and I encourage you to look at multiple sources to get a good picture of what each one means. While many modern books will list ‘layouts’ to be used when reading runes, these are not authentic to the techniques of the ancient Germanic peoples. The use of layouts is likely a carryover from the more widely familiar Tarot system, which was developed in 15th century Italy, long after the popularity of runes had diminished in most areas. A common way of divining with runes is a single rune draw from a bag; a lot of people will do this daily. A three-rune draw is also common practice, and seems to tie in well with what is described in the source material. For a bigger spread, the easiest method is to take all of them up, toss them onto the ground and read according to which land face-up. One thing that is good to get into is relating runes to which ones lie nearest to them, such as if you have a group of three that are right next to each other, but separate from the rest. Runes are typically carved on a natural material such as wood, stone, antler, bone, etc. and colored with paint (historically red was common, either with dye or blood).

As far as magic goes, the most well known form of runic magic is runic Galdr. ‘Galdr’ literally means ‘song’ in Old Norse, and galdr as it was more designed to be is a verse form. By this, I mean that rather than simply chanting the rune’s name, one sings a verse about the rune itself and it’s meaning. For more information on the form of runic galdr, please check out this post, as it contains information which would render this one too lengthy.

The rune poems themselves, if sung with the intent of invoking their respective runes, could be forms of galdr, and each of my rune studies begins and ends in this way. For example, my galdr for Hagal is:

Vad har de,
Ska xa upp nya.
Hagal faller ner och förstörar.
Kalla korn blir vatten för tillväxt.

Which translates to:

“What has died,
will grow up new.
Hagal (Hail) falls down and destroys.
Cold grain becomes water for growth.”

This invokes the destructive force of Hagal, which gives way for a new beginning. This is how that understanding and intent is projected forth, and quite a few of the runes have several associations to which a galdr verse or verses could be tailored.

Bindrunes are also a common feature in runic practice. These symbols combine the forms of multiple runes into a single glyph, which combines and magnifies the power of the individual runes; these are commonly inscribed on talismans or tokens as such:

Image

Notice the forms of Fehu, AlgiR, Raido, Othala and multiple other runes in this single symbol. Most will also say that when creating a bindrune, you need to make sure to draw each rune individually over each other, rather than just filling in the extra lines as you go.

If you want more info on runes and their uses, again, refer to my “Read and Do Not Read” list. There are so many meanings and techniques for the runes that I would literally have to write a book or two to do justice to them, so I will leave you with this.

References:

Paxon, Diana. Taking Up The Runes: A Complete Guide To Using Runes In Spells, Rituals, Divination, and Magic. Weiser Books. 2005.

Thorsson, Edred. Runelore: A Handbook of Esoteric Runology. Weiser Books. 1987.

Thorsson, Edred. Futhark: A Handbook of Rune Magic. Weiser Books. 1983.

Enoksen, Lars Magnar. The History of Runic Lore. Scandinavian Heritage Publications. 2011.

Hauge, Arild. Arild Hauge’s Runes. 2006. Internet. http://www.arild-hauge.com/eindex.htm